A series of studies at Cornell University have evaluated the direct effects of apples on breast cancer prevention in animals. The more apples consumed, the greater the reduction in incidence or number of tumors among test animals. The apple consumption tested was equivalent to one to six apples a day for 24 weeks.
(Journal of Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 53: 2341-2343)*
Quercetin, a flavonoid found naturally in apples, has been identified as one of the most beneficial flavonols in preventing and reducing the risk of pancreatic cancer. Although the overall risk was reduced among the study participants, smokers who consumed foods rich in flavonols had a significantly greater risk reduction.
(American Journal of Epidemiology, 2007, 8: 924-931)
A research team at Cornell University identified a group of phytochemicals that are more abundant in the peel and appear to kill or inhibit the growth of at least three different types of human cancer cells: colon, breast, and liver.
(Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2007, 55(11):4366 – 4370)
Researchers at Rochester, Minn.’s Mayo Clinic report that quercetin, a plant-based nutrient found most abundantly in apples, may provide a new method for preventing or treating prostate cancer. They found that quercetin inhibited or prevented the growth of human prostate cancer cells by blocking activity of androgen hormones, in an in vitro study. Previous studies had linked androgens to prostate cancer’s growth and development.
(Carcinogenesis, 2001, 22: 409-414)
Eating just one apple a day could slash the risk of colorectal cancer by more than one-third. Researchers in Poland surveyed 592 people with colorectal cancer and 700 cancer-free individuals about their diet and lifestyle. Cancer-free individuals tended to eat more apples than those with cancer and the more apples per day that an individual ate the less likely they were to develop colorectal cancer. They also found that the anti-cancer effect was seen even when an individual had a low total consumption of fruits and vegetables but consumed at least an apple a day. The observed protective effect may result from apples rich content of flavonoid and other polyphenols, which can inhibit cancer onset and cell proliferation. In addition, apples are a good source of fiber and a high-fiber diet is known as a risk reducer for colorectal cancer.
(European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2010, 19(1):42-47)